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  1. #1
    مشترك
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Dec 2005
    المشاركات
    10

    Post مقال عن الموارد البشرية والعولمة

    هذه مقالة ذات اهمية حيث انها تتناول موضوع الساعة وهو الموارد البشرية والعولمة

    [THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION AND THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES.


    Muhammad Aminu Bawa (1) Dr Juhary Ali (2)

    ABSTRACT
    The current financial crisis, which has engulfed East Asia since July 1997 and has subsequently spread to Russia and Brazil, is one of the most pressing challenges facing countries and businesses in today's global business environment. Globalization represents the structural making of the world characterized by the free flow of technology and human resources across national boundaries as well as the spread of Information Technology (IT) and mass media presenting an ever-changing and competitive business environment. Two major limitations are observed in the treatment of the twin issues of the responses to the East Asian economic crisis and the coverage of the literature on globalization. While the response to the crisis has focused on macroeconomic aspects, the issue of globalization has been addressed predominantly in and with respect to the developed economies of Western Europe, North America and Japan. This paper is an attempt to address these two limitations. Since the human factor is the key in the new era of globalization (Hassan, 1992; Sims & Sims, 1995), the primary objective of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for effective management of human resources as a response to the growing interaction of globalization and business performance. Three central arguments are made in this paper. (1) That a growing body of evidence converge to suggest that changes taking place in the global business environment often are not accompanied by complementary changes in human resource management practices leading to a situation whereby the failure of some firms is due to the mismanagement of people rather than to problems with technical systems per se. (2) That this is because organizations have achieved relatively low levels effectiveness in implementing Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) practices (Huselid, et al., 1997) especially in emerging economies of South East Asia and other developing countries like Nigeria that are exposed to the challenges and opportunities of globalization. (3) That in order to manage employees for competitive edge in a period of globalization, human resource personnel must possess competencies relevant for implementing such strategic HRM policies and practices (Barney & Wright, 1988; Huselid, et al., 1997; Ulrich, 1989, 1996; Ulrich, et al., 1995). Guided by theoretical perspectives such as the firm’s resource-based theory of competitive advantage (Barney, 1988, 1991; Irwin, et al., 1998; Wright & McMahan, 1992) and empirical evidence (Delery & Doty, 1996; Gittleman, et al., 1998; Huselid, et al., 1997; Leonard, 1990; Pfeffer, 1994; Schuler & Jackson, 1987), this paper develop propositions draws implications for the strategic management of human resources to prepare organizations for the challenges of globalization.


    (1) Lecturer, Department of Economics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, PMB 2346 Sokoto, Nigeria. Email: aminu18@hotmail.com

    (2) Professor, School of Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah.
    Email: juhary50@hotmail.com



    I. INTRODUCTION
    The current financial crisis, which has engulfed East Asia since July 1997 and has subsequently spread to Russia and Brazil, is one of the most pressing challenges facing countries and businesses in today's global business environment. Most of the response to the financial crisis has focused on macroeconomic aspects and there is relatively little research on the role of human resources. Secondly, the issue of globalization has been addressed predominantly in, and with respect to, the developed economies of Western Europe, North America and Japan. This paper is an attempt to address these two limitations since the human factor is one of the key issues in the new era of globalization (Hassan, 1992; Sims & Sims, 1995). The primary objective of this paper therefore is to present a conceptual framework for strategic management of human resources as a response to the growing interaction of globalization and business performance.

    Three central arguments made in this paper are: (1) That a great deal of evidence has accrued to suggest that changes taking place in the global business environment often are not accompanied by complementary changes in human resource management practices leading to a situation whereby the failure of some firms is due to the mismanagement of people rather than to problems with technical systems per se. (2) That this is because organizations have achieved relatively low levels of effectiveness in implementing Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) practices (Huselid, et al., 1997). This is particularly the case in emerging economies of South East Asia like Malaysia and other developing countries like Nigeria that are exposed to the challenges and opportunities of globalization. (3) That in order to manage employees for competitive edge in a period of globalization, human resource personnel must possess competencies relevant for effective implementation of such strategic HRM policies and practices (Barney & Wright, 1988; Cunningham & Debrah, 1995; Huselid, et al., 1997; Ulrich, 1987, 1996; Ulrich, et al., 1995). Following Wright & McMahan’s (1992) comprehensive theoretical framework for SHRM, this paper develops competency-based research framework and draws implications for the strategic management of human resources to prepare organizations for the challenges of globalization.

    II. HRM ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL MARAKETS
    The coming of the 21st century globalization poses distinctive HRM challenges to businesses especially those operating across national boundaries as multinational or global enterprises. Global business is characterized by the free flow of human and financial resources especially in the developed economies of European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), other regional groupings such as the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Southern African Development Community, etc. These developments are opening up new markets in a way that has never been seen before. This accentuates the need to manage human resources effectively to gain competitive advantage in the global market place. To achieve this, organizations require an understanding of the factors that can determine the effectiveness of various HR practices and approaches. This is because countries differ along a number of dimensions that influence the attractiveness of Direct Foreign Investments in each country. These differences determine the economic viability of building an operation in a foreign country and they have a particularly strong impact on HRM in that operation. A number of factors that affect HRM in global markets are identified: (1) Culture (2) Economic System (3) Political System – the legal framework and (4) Human capital (Noe, et al, 2000: 536). Consistent with the scope of the present paper, only one dimension is treated: human capital (the skills, capabilities or competencies of the workforce). This is in consonance with the believe that competency-based human resource plans provide a source for gaining competitive advantage and for countries profoundly affect a foreign country's desire to locate or enter that country’s market (O’Reilly, 1992). This partly explains why Japan and US locate and enter the local markets in South East Asia and Mexico respectively.
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  2. #2
    عضو جديد
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Apr 2006
    الدولة
    Kuwait
    المشاركات
    6

    افتراضي

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  3. #3
    عضو جديد
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Apr 2006
    المشاركات
    7

    افتراضي

    الموضوع حلو بس اني ابي بالعربي مو بالانجليزي

    العولمة وعلاقتها بالتنمية البشرية

    او الانترنت وعلاقتها بالتنمية البشرية

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